Racial Trauma & PTSD Resources

Race Matters in Understanding Mental Health and Trauma

This Page: Review | Assessment | Treatment | Books | Online Articles | Consulting

On-Demand Video Training for Racial Trauma

Dr. Williams' scholarly works include racial trauma, PTSD and cultural diversity, historical and cultural trauma, and related materials. Here are some specific articles that address this issue that have been published in the academic literature. Many of these demonstrate the very long-lasting effects of oppression, institutionalized racism, and violence on individuals, and others are trauma readings with a cultural diversity focus.

Video Resources

Williams, M. T. (2020). The Trauma of Racism: Assessment and Treatment Techniques for Trauma Rooted in Racism. PESI. (3 CE's)

Williams, M. T. & Wetterneck, C. (2022). Racial Trauma Treatment: A 12-Session CBT Protocol. PESI. (6 CE's)

Cultural Consultation and Training

Dr. Williams provides consultations with researchers in the implementation of culturally-informed research design to improve inclusion of people of color in research samples, and institutional equity, including ways to increase diversity and facilitate an improved racial environment. Contact her for a consultation.

Racial Trauma Reading by Topic

Literature Review

Williams, M. T., Khanna Roy, A., MacIntyre, M., & Faber, S. (in press). The traumatizing impact of racism in Canadians of colour. Current Trauma Reports. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40719-022-00225-5 [invited]

Williams, M. T., Osman, M., Gran-Ruaz, S., & Lopez, J. (2021). Intersection of racism and PTSD: Assessment and treatment of racism-related stress and trauma. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry, 8, 167–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40501-021-00250-2

Williams, M. T., Haeny, A. & Holmes, S. (2021). Posttraumatic stress disorder and racial trauma. PTSD Research Quarterly, 32(1), 1-9.

Williams, M. T., Osman, M., Gran-Ruaz, S., & Lopez, J. (in press). Intersection of racism and PTSD: Assessment and treatment of racism-related stress and trauma. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry, 8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40501-021-00250-2

Grau, P., Kusch, M. M., Williams, M. T., Loyo, K. M., Zhang, X., Warner, R. C., & Wetterneck, C. (in press). A review of the inclusion of ethnoracial groups in empirically-supported posttraumatic stress disorder treatment research. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0001108

Woman at a computer, reading racial trauma literature.

Measures and Assessment

Bosson, R., Williams, M. T., Schlaudt, V., Carrico, R., Peña, A., Ramirez, J., & Kanter, J. (2017). Evaluating mental health in Cuban refugees: The role of the Refugee Health Screener-15. Journal of Refugee & Global Health, 1(1), 15-23. doi: 10.18297/rgh/vol1/iss1/4

Malcoun, E., Williams, M. T., & Bahojb-Nouri, L. V. (2015). Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in African Americans. In L. T. Benuto & B. D. Leany (Eds.), Guide to Psychological Assessment with African Americans (pp. 163-182). New York, NY: Springer. ISBN: 978-1-4939-1003-8.

Sawyer, B., Williams, M.T., DeLapp, R. C. T., & Davis, D. M. (2016). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. In A. Breland-Noble, C. S. Al-Mateen, & N. N. Singh (Eds.), Handbook of Mental Health in African American Youth (pp. 237-247). Springer. ISBN: 978-3-319-25501-9..

Snipes, C. (2013). Assessment of anxiety with Hispanics. In L. T. Benuto (Ed.), Guide to Psychological Assessment with Hispanics (pp. 153-162). New York, NY, US: Springer Science + Business Media. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-4412-1_11

Williams, M. T., Metzger, I., Leins, C., & DeLapp, C. (2018). Assessing racial trauma within a DSM-5 framework: The UConn Racial/Ethnic Stress & Trauma Survey. Practice Innovations, 3(4), 242-260. doi: 10.1037/pri0000076

Williams, M. T., Pena, A., & Mier-Chairez, J. (2017). Tools for assessing racism-related stress and trauma among Latinos. In L. T. Benuto (Ed.), Toolkit for Counseling Spanish-Speaking Clients. Springer. ISBN: 978-3-319-64880-4. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-64880-4_4

Williams, M. T., Printz, D., Ching, T., & Wetterneck, C. T. (2018). Assessing PTSD in ethnic and racial minorities: Trauma and racial trauma. Directions in Psychiatry, 38(3), 179-196.

Williams, M. T., Printz, D., & DeLapp, R. C. T. (2018). Assessing racial trauma in African Americans with the Trauma Symptoms of Discrimination Scale. Psychology of Violence, 8(6), 735-747. doi: 10.1037/vio0000212

Treatment Focused

Carlson, M. D., Endsley, M., Motley, D., Shawahin, L. N., & Williams, M. T. (2018). Addressing the impact of racism on veterans of color: A race-based stress and trauma group. Psychology of Violence, 8(6), 748-762. doi: 10.1037/vio0000221

Miller, A., Williams, M. T., Wetterneck, C. T., Kanter, J., & Tsai, M. (2015). Using functional analytic psychotherapy to improve awareness and connection in racially diverse client-therapist dyads. The Behavior Therapist, 38(6), 150-156.

Saleem, F. T., Anderson, R. E., & Williams, M. T. (2020). Addressing the "myth" of racial trauma: Developmental and ecological considerations for youth of color. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 23(1), 1–14. doi: 10.1007/s10567-019-00304-1

Sawyer, B., DeLapp, R. C. T., & Williams, M. T. (2016). Community Violence Exposure, Racial Discrimination, and Barriers to Treatment: Implications for African American Males in Counseling. In W. Ross (Ed.), Counseling African American Males: Effective Therapeutic Interventions and Approaches (pp. 33-60). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Williams, M. T., Malcoun, E., Sawyer, B., Davis, D. M., Bahojb-Nouri, L. V., & Leavell Bruce, S. (2014). Cultural Adaptations of Prolonged Exposure Therapy for Treatment and Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in African Americans. Behavioral Sciences — Special Issue: PTSD and Treatment Considerations, 4(2), 102-124. doi:10.3390/bs4020102

Case Studies

Ching, T. H. W. (in press). Culturally attuned behavior therapy for anxiety and depression in Asian Americans: Addressing racial microaggressions and deconstructing the model minority myth. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2021.04.006

Halstead, M., Reed, S., Krause, R., & Williams, M. T. (2021). Ketamine-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD related to experiences of racial discrimination. Clinical Case Studies, 20(4), 310-330. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534650121990894

Other Useful Readings (research and theory)

Bosson, R., Williams, M. T., Lippman, S., Carrico, R., Kanter, J., Peña, A., Mier-Chairez, J., & Ramirez, J. (2017). Addressing refugee mental health needs: From concept to implementation. The Behavior Therapist, 40(3), 110-112.

Williams, M. T., Reed, S., & Aggarwal, R. (2020). Culturally-informed research design issues in a study for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychedelic Studies, 4(1), 40–50. doi: 10.1556/2054.2019.016


Williams, M. T., Rosen, D. C., & Kanter, J. W. (2019). Eliminating Race-Based Mental Health Disparities: Promoting Equity and Culturally Responsive Care Across Settings. New Harbinger Books. ISBN: 978-1-68403-196-2

Nadal, K. L. (2018). Microaggressions and Traumatic Stress: Theory, Research, and Clinical Treatment. American Psychological Association.

Menakem, R. (2017). My Grandmother’s Hands: Racialized Trauma and the Pathway to Mending Our Hearts and Bodies. Las Vegas: Central Recovery Press. ISBN-13: 978-1942094470

Collins, R. D. (2007). The Trauma Zone. Chicago: Moody Publishers. ISBN-13: 978-0802489890

DeGruy, J. (2005). Post-Traumatic Slave Syndrome. Uptone Press. ISBN 978-0963401120

Racial Trauma Articles for a General Audience

Parker, G., Butler, S. K., Flynn, A., Young, D., Fisher, L., Williams, M. & Taylor, Z. (2020, September). Race and Healing: Expanding the Conversation. Psychotherapy Networker.

Williams, M. (2020, June 30). An Interview with Monnica Williams, PhD, ABPP on Collective Trauma. National Center for Integrated Behavioral Health. University of Pennsylvania Medical School.

Williams, M. T. (2019, February 13). Uncovering the Trauma of Racism. APA Journals Article Spotlight. American Psychological Association.

DeLapp, R.C.T. & Williams, M. (2016, July). Proactively Coping With Racism. Psychology Today.

Williams, M. (2015, September). The Link Between Racism and PTSD. Psychology Today.

Williams, M. (2015, August). Understanding Race-Based Trauma. University of Louisville Med School Newsletter.

Institution for the Study and Promotion of Race and Culture. Racial Trauma is Real Infographic. Boston College.

SAMHSA. African Americans and Mental Health.

Janssen, S. Racial Trauma in African American Underuse of Hospice & Palliative Care. Social Work Today.

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